Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in Poland and other developed countries. It refers especially to those in peri- and postmenopausal age. Poland is characterized by a dynamic increase in the number of new cases of breast cancer. Namely, in 2010, the number of new diagnosed cases was more than 30% higher than 10 years before. As suggested by epidemiological forecasts for Poland, the trend is expected to be maintained. Surgical treatment is the main prerequisite for a permanent and positive outcome of breast cancer treatment. The percentage of surgeries performed in Poland has increased significantly in recent years from 77% in 2004 to 90% in 2010. The most important prognostic factor affecting longterm treatment outcomes in cancer patients is the clinical grading of the disease. Early detection of breast cancer, preferably at the asymptomatic stage, may significantly determine both the selection of available treatment options and the final treatment outcome. The objective of this study was to discuss current problems related to preoperative diagnostics and surgical treatment of breast cancer patients. Issues concerning mammography screening program were subjected to analysis. The part concerning surgical treatment features new trends regarding procedures of conservative treatment of breast cancer. It is also important to emphasize the necessity of the use of conclusions from the Z0011 trial and personalized oncoplastic surgery techniques in everyday clinical practice.