The aim of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of cervical cancer prevention program in detection of the pathology based on two systems of classification of cytological smears: the Papanicolaou and The Bethesda System. The study encompassed women participating in the Population Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening Program, not undergoing cytological exams for at least 3 years in the scope of screening tests reimbursed and provided by the National Heath Fund. The study lasted since July 2004 thru December 2006 and recruited female residents of the Wielkopolska voivodeship. Overall, 12 314 women aged 25-59 were included in final analysis. Cytological screening was performed using the Papanicolaou or the Bethesda classification systems. In this population, 99% of results obtained were normal while 1% was pathological. There were 55 abnormal smears assessed using the Papanicolaou classification and 120 abnormal smears when assessed using the Bethesda system. Histological verification of women with abnormal smear in the Papanicolaou group revealed 14 cases of cervical cancer and 31 lesions consistent with intraepithelial neoplasia at various clinical stages. Corresponding figures in the Bethesda group were 13 cervical cancers and 31 intraepithelial neoplastic lesions at various clinical stages.